Module 6, Unit 5
“Farms and Factories”
Base Sentences – (811-825)
811 Because of the warm and sunny weather, oranges grow very well here.
812 In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and, raise cattle.
813 The ground around here is stony and not very good for farming.
814 What are the principal farm products in this region?
815 Milk, butter, and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms.
816 They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms.
817 At this time of the year farmers plow their fields.
818 On many farms you’ll find cows and chickens.
819 If you have cows you have to get up early to do the milking.
820 Tractors have revolutionized farming.
821 In the United States, there are many factories for making cloth.
822 Factories employ both male and female workers.
823 If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock.
824 Is meat packing a big industry in your country?
825 Is it true that the manufacturing of automobiles is a major industry?
1. grow (growing, grew, grown)
(A) Because of the warm climate, oranges grow very well here. (B) I used to see a lot of oranges growing here, but I don’t anymore. (C) Last year the farmer grew corn on this land. I don’t know what he’ll grow this year. (D) If your land had been fertile, you could have grown tobacco. （A）は、温暖な気候のために、オレンジはここで非常によく育つ。 （B）私はここで成長しているオレンジの多くを見るために使用されますが、私はもういない。 （C）昨年農民がこの土地にトウモロコシの増加となりました。私は彼が今年成長すると思うのか分からない。あなたの土地は肥沃であった場合（D）は、タバコを栽培している可能性があります。
2. raise (raising, raises, raised)
(A) In this flat country people raise cattle. (B) I’m raising chickens this year. (C) Mr. Cooper raises cattle on his farm, doesn’t he? (D) I’ve often raised chickens, but I’ve never raised pigs. （A）は、この平らな国で人々は牛を上げる。 （B）私は今年の鶏を飼育しています。 （C）氏クーパーは、彼が、彼の農場で牛を発生させません？ （D）私はよく鶏を調達しているが、私は豚を引き上げたことがない。
3. be (are, were, been) shipped
(A) Milk, butter and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms. (B) The books you want were shipped to you three months ago. (C) If the books had been shipped several months ago, I would have gotten them by now. （A）牛乳、バター、チーズは酪農場からここに出荷されています。 （B）あなたが欲しい本は3ヶ月前にあなたに出荷されました。本は数ヶ月前に出荷されていた場合は（C）、私は今では、それらを得ているだろう。
4. cut (cutting) down
(A) They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms. (B) They’re cutting down all the trees in this area. (C) Who cut this tree down? Do you know? (D) If I had cut that tree down, I would have told you about it. （A）彼らは、農場のための部屋を作るために木の多くを伐採しなければならなかった。 （B）彼らは、このエリア内のすべての木を伐採している。 （C）誰がこの木を切り倒し？知っていますか？ （D）は私がダウンして木が、私はそれについてあなたに言ったであろうことをカットしていた場合。
5. plow (plows, plowing)
(A) At this time of the year farmers plow their fields. (B) He always plows his fields in September or October. (C) I wish I had finished plowing the fields this morning. （A）年間農家のこの時点で、そのフィールドを耕す。 （B）彼はいつも9月か10月に彼のフィールドを耕す。 （C）私は今朝のフィールドを耕し終えたい。
6. revolutionize (revolutionized, revolutionizing)
(A) Tractors have revolutionized farming. (B) The new tractors are revolutionizing farming around here. (C) Modern machinery has revolutionized industry. （A）トラクターは農業に革命をもたらしました。 （B）新しいトラクター辺り農業に革命を起こしている。 （C）現代の機械は、業界に革命をもたらしました。
7. employ (employs, employed)
(A) Factories employ both male and female workers. (B) This company employs ten people. (C) If they had employed me, I would have worked hard. （A）工場では、男性と女性労働者の両方を採用しています。 （B）この会社では、10人を雇用している。彼らが私を採用していた場合（C）、私は懸命に働いていただろう。
8. punch (punched) a clock
(A) If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock. (B) What time did you punch the clock this morning? (C) As soon as he got to work this morning, he punched the clock. あなたは工場で作業している場合は、（A）は、通常クロックをパンチする必要があります。 （B）は、今朝時計を何時にパンチしましたか？ （C）のようにすぐに彼は今朝動作するようになったとして、彼は時計をパンチ。
Word/Phrase Substitution Drills
1a Because of the warm and sunny weather, oranges grow very well here.
1b Because of the warm and sunny weather, lemons grow very well here.
1c Because of the warm and sunny weather, cotton and peanuts grow very well here.
1d Because of the warm and sunny weather, tobacco and rice grow very well here.
1e Because of the warm and sunny weather, fruits grow very well here.
2a In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise cattle.
2b In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise pigs.
2c In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise sheep.
2d In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise chickens.
2e In this flat country people grow wheat and corn and raise thoroughbreds.
3a The ground around here is stony and not very good for farming .
3b The ground around here is swamp land and not very good for farming .
3c The ground around here is mostly clay and not very good for farming .
3d The ground around here is rocky and not very good for farming .
4a What are the principal farm products in this region?
4b What are the principal crops in this region?
4c What are the principal natural resources in this region?
4d What are the principal minerals in this region?
5a Milk, butter and cheese are shipped here from the dairy farms.
5b Milk, butter and cheese are brought in here from the dairy farms.
5c Milk, butter and cheese are transported here from the dairy farms.
5d Milk, butter and cheese are flown here from the dairy farms.
6a They had to cut down a lot of trees to make room for farms.
6b They had to clear a lot of land to make room for farms.
6c They had to burn a lot of underbrush to make room for farms.
6d They had to work for many years to make room for farms.
7a At this time of year, farmers plow their fields.
7b At this time of year, farmers cultivate their lands.
7c At this time of year, farmers plant their fields.
7d At this time of year, farmers harvest their crops.
7e At this time of year, farmers get ready for the autumn harvest.
8a On many farms you’ll find cows and chickens.
8b On many farms you’ll find livestock.
8c On many farms you’ll find pet dogs and cats.
8d On many farms you’ll find modern farm equipment.
9a If you have cows you have to get up early to do the milking.
9b If you have livestock you have to get up early to do the feeding.
9c If you have crops you have to get up early to do the plowing.
10a Tractors have revolutionized farming.
10b Modern farm implements have revolutionized farming.
10c Milkers have revolutionized farming.
10d Binders and threshers have revolutionized farming.
10e Hay loaders and reapers have revolutionized farming.
10f Feed grinders have revolutionized farming.
11a In the United States, there are many factories for making cloth.
11b In the United States, there are many factories for making automobiles.
11c In the United States, there are many factories for making furniture.
11d In the United States, there are many factories for making leather goods.
11e In the United States, there are many factories for making steel.
11f In the United States, there are many factories for making appliances.
12a Factories employ both male and female workers.
12b Factories give jobs to both male and female workers.
12c Factories have work for both male and female workers.
13a If you work in a factory, you usually have to punch a clock.
13b If you work in a factory, you usually have to carry a lunch to work.
13c If you work in a factory, you usually have to get to work on time.
13d If you work in a factory, you usually have to work five days a week.
14a Is meat packing a big industry in your country?
14b Is food processing a big industry in your country?
14c Is fishing a big industry in your country?
14d Is fish canning a big industry in your country?
15a Is it true that the manufacturing of automobiles is a major industry?
15b Is it true that the manufacturing of airplanes is a major industry?
15c Is it true that the manufacturing of clothing is a major industry?
15d Is it true that the manufacturing of furniture is a major industry?
The Jensens are a typical American farm family. Mr. and Mrs. Jensen came from Norway many years ago and settled on a dairy farm in Minnesota. Their four children grew up there. ジェンセンは、典型的なアメリカの農場の家族です。夫妻ジェンセンは、何年も前に、ノルウェーから来て、ミネソタ州の酪農農場で和解した。彼ら四人の子供が育った。
The two boys, Olaf and Carl, helped their father take care of the farm. They plowed and planted the fields, harvested the crops and milked the cows. The daughters, Inga and Sigrid, helped their mother with the housework. There was always a lot to do and the whole family worked very hard. 二人の少年、オラフとカールは、彼らの父親は農場の世話をしました。彼らは、耕さや作物を収穫し、牛を搾乳、フィールドを植えた。娘、インガとシグリッドは、家事と母親を助けた。そこにやるべきことがたくさんは常にあったし、家族全員が非常に懸命に働いた。
Today Mr. and Mrs. Jensen are old and cannot work as hard as they did when they were younger. Their son Olaf runs the farm now and his wife and children help him. The work is not as hard now as it used to be. Olaf has bought several machines which do many of the things formerly done by hand. 今日夫妻ジェンセンは古く、などのハード、彼らが若かったとき、彼らがしたように動作することはできません。彼らの息子オラフは現在、ファームを実行し、彼の妻と子供たちは彼を助ける。それがために使用される仕事は、今のように難しいことではありません。オラフは、以前は手で物事の多くを行う複数のマシンを買ってきた。
The other three children have moved away. Sigrid married a farmer and lives nearby. Carl is living in Minneapolis where he has a good job as manager of a factory which makes dairy products. 他の三人の子供は車で移動している。シグリッドは農家と結婚し、近くに住んでいます。彼は乳製品を作る工場のマネージャーとして良い仕事を持ってどこにカールはミネアポリスに住んでいる。
Some of the milk used by the factory comes from Olaf Jensen’s farm. Olaf Jensen Inga went to the State University and is now teaching in a high school in St. Paul. 工場で使用される牛乳の一部はオラフジェンセンの農場から来ている。オラフジェンセンインガは州立大学に行って、今ではセントポールの高校で教えています。
The story of the Jensens is not unusual. Although life on the farm has changed a great deal, farming is still a necessary and very important occupation. However, city life attracts young people like Carl and Inga Jensen. Every year many of them leave the farms and take jobs in the many factories which are located in or near large cities. ジェンセンの話は珍しいことではありません。農場での生活は、多くのことを変更されましたが、農業は依然として必要な、非常に重要な職業です。しかし、都会の生活には、カールとインガジェンセンのような若い人たちを魅了しています。毎年、それらの多くは農場を離れ、大都市の中や近くに位置している多くの工場での仕事を取る。
1. Describe the Jensen family.
2. What are some of the things that farmers do?
3. Do all of The Jensens still live on the farm?
4. What important products are made from milk?
5. Why is farming important?
6. Which do you prefer, farm life or city life? Why?
appliance 什器 It’s best to buy durable appliances that last a long time.
autumn 秋 It’s almost autumn, the weather’s getting colder.
because of なぜなら Because of the demand for appliances, the factory increased production.
binder バイダー a. A machine that reaps and ties grain. b. An attachment on a reaping machine that ties grain in bundles.
clay 粘土 Most plants don’t like to grow in clay.
cloth 布 Does this factory produce cotton cloth?
clothing 衣類The United States produces clothing in great abundance.
dairy 乳製品 Dairy products are in demand in this region. His father owns a dairy.
equipment 機器 Farm equipment is quite expensive.
feed grinder 工場を養う A feed grinder grinds several plant materials together and produces a pelletized feed for horses and other livestock.
female 雌 A cow is a female bovine and a bull is a male bovine.
field 野戦 Farmers generally work out in the fields every day.
fish canning 魚の缶詰 Cannery Row in Monterey California is famous for fish canning.
food processing 品加工 The food processing industry in America is quite large.
ground 地 The ground here is very rich and good for growing cotton.
harvest 収穫 The harvest this year is quite good.
hay loader 乾草ローダー A hay loader is a machine for farmers that picks up bales of hay or straw prepared by a hay baler, stacks them on a platform, and transports them to a stacking site.
implement 器具 An agricultural implement is a tool or machine used in agriculture.
industry 産業 This industry is difficult to manage.
lemon レモン Lemons are expensive and not very easy to grow as they ripen quite slowly.
livestock 家畜 Livestock are farm animals, with the exception of poultry. In the USA they are primarily cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, donkeys, and mules.
male 男性 A male bovine is called a bull.
manufacturing 製造業 The major manufacturing area is in the Great Lakes area.
meat packing 食肉加工 Meat packing is a major industry in the city of Chicago.
milker 搾乳器 A milking machine is commonly called a “milker” by farmers.
mostly 大部分 The central part of American was mostly grassland.
peanut ピーナッツThe peanut plant is usually grown in the southern United States. They are native to South America and has been cultivated there for thousands of years. It is now grown in most tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions, especially in India and China (the major world producers), W Africa, and the SE United States.
pig 豚 The state of Wisconsin is famous for raising pigs.
principal 主要 The principal product of California used to be citrus fruits.
product 製品 The farm products from the west coast of America are of high quality.
reaper 刈り取り機 A reaper is a farm implement that reaps (cuts) the stalks of grain and gathers them into bundles.
rice 米 Rice is grown mainly in the southern states.
rocky 岩石からなる The ground here is very rocky and not suitable for agriculture.
sheep 羊 A lot of sheep are raised in the state of Utah.
steel 鋼 The most steel mills are located in the north.
swamp 沼地 This swamp needs to be drained.
thoroughbred サラブレッド A thoroughbred is a light breed of racing and jumping horse descended from three desert stallions brought to England between 1689 and 1724. Thoroughbreds have a delicate head, slim body, broad chest, and short back. Most are bay, chestnut, brown, black, or gray. They stand about (64 in., 163 cm) high and weigh about 1,000 lbs (450 kg). They are sensitive and high-spirited and are often used to improve other stock.
thresher 脱穀機 A thresher is a machine that separates grain or seeds from the ears, tassels, heads, and cobs of agricultural plants.Also known as threshing machine.
tobacco 煙草 The state of Virginia is famous for growing fine quality tobacco.
tractor 牽引車 In agriculture, a tractor is a vehicle used to pull such equipment as plows, cultivators, and mowers; to power stationary devices such as saws and winches; and to push snowplows and earth-moving implements. Early tractors were steam-driven; now they are generally powered by gasoline or diesel engines.
true 真 Is it true that manufacturing production in the United States is lower than it was last year?
underbrush 下生え The underbrush must be cleared first before it can be used. Underbrush is a group of plants consisting of shrubs or, less frequently, tree varieties that never form part of the dominant crown cover.
wheat 小麦 Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East and Ethiopian Highlands, but now cultivated worldwide.
brought in (p. and p. part.)
cut down (p. and p. part.)
do the feeding
do the milking
do the plowing
make room (for)
punch a clock